Cancers can affect various parts of the human body. While it is common to think of cancer forming in a particular organ, the cells in blood are no more impervious to cancer mutations than those elsewhere in the body. 
Hematologic cancers affect the production and function of blood cells. Cancer Treatment Centers of America says that most blood cancers originate in the bone marrow, where blood is produced. What makes hematologic cancers so imposing is, unlike cancers that may affect only one area, blood cells are involved in just about every process of the body. Blood plays an essential role in the immune system by producing cells to fight off infection.
The American Society of Hematology states that blood stem cells will develop into red blood cells, white blood cells or platelets. With most blood cancers, abnormal blood cells prevent the blood from fighting off infection or preventing serious bleeding. Blood cancers are broken down into three main types.
• Leukemia: This is a type of cancer found in the blood and bone marrow that is caused by a rapid production of abnormal white blood cells. These cells are not able to fight infection, and they can impair the ability of the bone marrow to produce red blood cells and platelets. The most commonly diagnosed leukemias, according to the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, are chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
• Lymphoma: In this blood cancer, the lymphatic system responsible for removing excess fluids from the body and producing immune cells is affected. Lymphocytes are white blood cells that fight infection. When they are compromised by cancer, they become lymphoma cells that collect in the lymph nodes and other tissues, impairing the immune system, offers AHS. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is one of the more commonly diagnosed lymphomas.
• Myeloma: This is a cancer that begins in the plasma, a type of white blood cell that fights infection through the production of antibodies, offers CTCA. Myeloma weakens the body and makes it susceptible to infection. Multiple myeloma is a common form of the disease. 
Although the causation of these blood cancers varies, very often people afflicted with these cancers experience similar symptoms. These can include night sweats, bone/joint pain, shortness of breath, frequent infections, and abdominal discomfort. 
Treatment can be affected by various factors, including the type of cancer, a patient’s age, how fast the cancer is growing, and if any spreading has occurred. Stem cell transplantation through bone marrow collection, circulating blood and umbilical cord blood can be a promising treatment. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy also are used. Blood transfusions may be necessary. In addition, targeted therapies for the disease are now being studied in clinical trials at the Center for Hematologic Oncology at Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women’s Cancer Center. 
Patients are urged to speak with their doctors to learn the best steps to address blood cancers.